Top 10 Programming Languages Comparison: Ultimate Guide

Published by Piotr Blachnio on

Top 10 Programming Languages

There are dozens of programming languages out there. Sometimes it’s not easy to choose the right one. What’s more interesting, there is no one programming language suitable for everyone. Everybody has their own preferences and opinions. The best way is to compare all the languages in many aspects and really feel the difference between them. That’s why I’ve made the most comprehensive guide about top programming languages that I always wanted to read.

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1. Python

Python Programming Language

Python was created in 1991 by Guido van Rossum. It’s a dynamically-typed, garbage-collected, and interpreted programming language. It supports many popular paradigms, such as functional, structure, and object-oriented programming.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 120,00031,00023Easy

Use cases

  • Data Science
  • Machine Learning
  • Backend Development
  • Scripting

Advantages

  • Many useful libraries
  • Big open-source community
  • Easy to learn and fast to write

Disadvantages

  • Slow
  • Poor multiprocessing support
  • High memory consumption

Syntax

for n in range(1, 101):
    if n % 3 == 0:
        print("FizzBuzz" if n % 5 == 0 else "Fizz")
        continue
    print("Buzz" if n % 5 == 0 else n)

Learning Resources

2. Javascript

Javascript Programming Language

Javascript is a high-level, multi-paradigm, and just-in-time compiled programming language. It was developed by Brendan Eich in 1995. Javascript one of the leading web technologies, alongside HTML and CSS.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 112,00039,000110Easy to Moderate

Use cases

  • Frontend Development
  • Backend Development
  • Mobile Applications
  • Desktop Applications

Advantages

  • Many different use cases
  • Fast to write
  • One of the most popular languages out there

Disadvantages

  • Requires different browsers support
  • Poor performance in the memory-intensive tasks
  • Bad client-side security

Syntax

function fizzbuzz(num){

    for(let i=1; i <= num; i++){

      if(i % 15 == 0){

        console.log("fizzbuzz");

      }

      else if(i % 5 == 0){

        console.log("buzz");

      }

      else if(i % 3 == 0){

        console.log("fizz");

      }

      else console.log(i);

   }

  }

fizzbuzz(100);

Learning Resources

3. Go

Go Programming Language

Go is a statically typed and compiled programming language. It was designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson in 2009. Its syntax is similar to the C programming language but with additional features such as structural typing, memory safety, and garbage collection.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 140,0003,50095Moderate

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Scripting

Advantages

  • Really fast
  • Great concurrency support
  • Very concise, simple, and safe

Disadvantages

  • Poor external libraries support
  • Relatively young language
  • No generics

Syntax

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

 for i := 1; i <= 100; i++ {

 if i%15 == 0 {

 fmt.Println("FizzBuzz")

 } else if i%3 == 0 {

 fmt.Println("Fizz")

 } else if i%5 == 0 {

 fmt.Println("Buzz")

 } else {

 fmt.Println(i)

    }
  }
}

Learning Resources

4. Ruby

Ruby Programming Language

Ruby was developed in 1995 by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto in Japan. It’s interpreted, high-level, and dynamically-typed programming language. Its most popular framework is the well-known Ruby on Rails.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 130,0003,5001117Easy

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Scripting

Advantages

  • A decent number of helpful libraries and friendly community
  • Fast code developing
  • Easy to start with

Disadvantages

  • Slow
  • Decreasing in popularity
  • Lack of flexibility

Syntax

def fizzbuzz(number)

    divisibleBy3 = (number % 3 == 0)

    divisibleBy5 = (number % 5 == 0)

 

    case

        when divisibleBy3 && divisibleBy5

            puts "FizzBuzz"

        when divisibleBy3

            puts "Fizz"

        when divisibleBy5

            puts "Buzz"

        else 

            puts number

    end

end

(1..100).each {|n| fizzbuzz n}

Learning Resources

5. PHP

PHP programming language

PHP is a general-purpose scripting programming language. It was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, and it’s mainly used in the Backend Development. PHP’s two most popular frameworks are Laravel and Symphony.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 100,0006,500518Easy to Moderate

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Scripting

Advantages

  • Many open-source libraries
  • Big community
  • Low learning curve

Disadvantages

  • Decreasing in popularity
  • Lots of code vulnerabilities
  • Poor multithreading support

Syntax

<?php

 
for ($i = 1; $i < 101; $i++)

{

  $output = "";

  if ($i % 3 == 0)
  {
    $output .= "Fizz";
  }

  if ($i % 5 == 0)
  {
    $output .= "Buzz";
  }

  if (!$output)
  {
    $output = $i;
  }
  echo $output . "\n"
}

Learning Resources

6. Java

Java programming language

Java is a compiled, object-oriented, and memory-managed programming language. It was first introduced in 1991 by Sun Microsystems. Its main concept was to “write once, run anywhere.” Java compiles into bytecode which is executed by the Virtual Machine (JVM).

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 120,00044,000315Moderate

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Android Applications
  • Desktop Applications

Advantages

  • Secure
  • Stability and a huge community
  • Not platform dependent

Disadvantages

  • Verbose and complex code
  • High memory consumption
  • Worse performance compared to natively compiled languages such as C or C++

Syntax

public class FizzBuzz {

  public static void main(String[] args) {

    for (int i = 1; i < 101; i++) {

      String output = "";

      if (i % 3 == 0) {

        output += "Fizz";

      }

      if (i % 5 == 0) {

        output += "Buzz";

      }

      if (output.isEmpty()) {

        output += i;

      }

      System.out.println(output);
    }
  }
}

Learning Resources

7. C#

C# programming language

C# is a statically typed, general-purpose, and multi-paradigm programming language. It was developed in 2000 by Microsoft. Syntactically, it’s very similar to Java. Some well-known C# frameworks are .NET and .NET Core.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 110,00027,00048Moderate

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Game Development
  • Desktop Applications

Advantages

  • Stability
  • Many useful libraries and welcoming community
  • Automatic garbage collection and strong memory backup

Disadvantages

  • Needs to be executed on Windows
  • Much worse performance compared to natively compiled languages such as C or C++
  • Dependent upon Microsoft

Syntax

namespace FizzBuzz

{

    public class Program

    {

        public static string FizzBuzz(int number)

        {

            string temp = "";

            if (number % 3 == 0)

            {

                temp += "Fizz";

            }

            if (number % 5 == 0)

            {

                temp += "Buzz";

            }

            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(temp))

            {

                temp += number;

            }

            return temp;
        }
 
        private static void Main(string[] args)

        {

            for (int i = 1; i <= 100; i++)

            {

                string line = FizzBuzz(i);
                System.Console.WriteLine(line);

            }
        }
    }
}

Learning Resources

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8. C++

C++ programming language

C++ is an object-oriented and general-purpose programming language. It was designed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985. It’s an extension of the C programming language, and many people call it “C with Classes.”

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 120,00012,500716Moderate to Difficult

Use cases

  • Desktop Applications
  • Game Development
  • Operating Systems and Browsers
  • Embedded Devices

Advantages

  • Very fast
  • Platform independent
  • Low-level manipulation

Disadvantages

  • Relatively difficult to start with
  • Security issues
  • Overall complexity

Syntax

#include <iostream>

int main()

{

    for (int i = 1; i <= 100; i++) {

        if (i % 15 == 0)

            std::cout << "FizzBuzz\n";

        else if (i % 5 == 0)

            std::cout << "Buzz\n";

        else if (i % 3 == 0)

            std::cout << "Fizz\n";

        else

            std::cout << i << "\n";
    }

    return 0;
}

Learning Resources

9. Rust

Rust programming language

Rust is a statically-typed and multi-paradigm programming language. It was developed by Graydon Hoare at Mozilla Research in 2010. Rust is syntactically similar to C++, however much more secure.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 130,0001000161Moderate to Difficult

Use cases

  • Backend Development
  • Game Development
  • Operating Systems and Browsers
  • Desktop Applications

Advantages

  • Great performance
  • Very secure
  • Flexible

Disadvantages

  • Relatively difficult to start with
  • Still a young language
  • Overall complexity

Syntax

fn main() {

    for number in 1..101 {

        if number % 3 == 0 && number % 5 == 0 {

            println!("FizzBuzz");

        } else if number % 3 == 0 {

            println!("Fizz");

        } else if number % 5 == 0 {

            println!("Buzz");

        } else {

            println!("{}", number);
        }
    }
}

Learning Resources

10. Swift

Swift programming language

Swift is a compiled, multi-paradigm and object-oriented programming language. Apple developed it in 2014 and it was designed as a replacement for Objective-C.

Annual SalaryAvailable JobsPopularity RankingMost Loved RankingDifficulty
$ 125,0003,500149Easy to Moderate

Use cases

  • iOS Development

Advantages

  • Much faster and more scalable compared to Objective-C
  • Fairly easy to start with
  • Rapid development process

Disadvantages

  • Not many third-party tools yet
  • Still a young language
  • Lack of support for earlier iOS versions

Syntax

func fizzBuzz(start: Int = 1, end: Int = 100) -> Void {

    let range = start...end

    for number in range {

        guard number % 5 == 0 || number % 3 == 0 else {

            print(number)

            continue

        }

        var fizzAndOrBuzz = ""

        if number % 3 == 0 {

            fizzAndOrBuzz = "Fizz"

        }

        if number % 5 == 0 {

            fizzAndOrBuzz += "Buzz"

        }

        print(fizzAndOrBuzz)
    }
}

fizzBuzz();

Learning Resources

Disclaimers

  1. Stack Overflow Popularity Ranking is from this survey with excluded HTML, CSS, SQL, and Bash.
  2. Stack Overflow Most Loved Programming Languages Ranking is from this survey with excluded HTML, CSS, SQL, and Bash.
  3. Annual salaries are from this survey.
  4. Available jobs are from this website.

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2 Comments

Martin · March 10, 2021 at 7:28 PM

Very useful article!

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